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IEA Clean Coal Centre Webinars

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  • Emission standards and control of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plant Emission standards and control of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plant Xing Zhang Recorded: May 18 2016 46 mins
    It is a concern that emissions from coal combustion may pollute the air. A lot of effort has been made to
    regulate, control and prevent the pollutants emitted from coal-fired power plants. The coal industry is
    facing increasingly stringent emission regulations, for the release of SO2, NOx, toxic volatile organic
    compounds, heavy metals, and particulate matter (PM). PM can contain any or all of the aforementioned
    chemical species or their compounds, plus water and biogenic organic species. PM2.5, as fine PM, can be
    inhaled into human respiratory systems and travel deep into the lungs causing health problems. PM2.5 is
    also considered to be a major cause of smog in cities and elsewhere. This webinar describes the
    international and selected countries’ national air quality and PM emission standards for stationary
    sources that are relevant to coal-fired power plants. Emission standards for SO2 and NOx are included
    since they are precursors of secondary fine PM. International and national measurement standards are
    summarised. Recent developments in PM emission control technologies are reviewed.
  • Next generation carbon capture technologies for coal Next generation carbon capture technologies for coal Toby Lockwood Recorded: Apr 27 2016 38 mins
    Established CO2 capture technologies such as absorption with amine solvents are associated with significant energetic and economic penalties, reducing power plant efficiency by around 10% points and increasing the cost of electricity production by up to 80%. Dedicated research programmes worldwide have pursued the development of a wide range of innovative, alternative technologies for CO2 capture, largely by addressing the fundamental gas separation step at the heart of post-combustion, pre-combustion or oxyfuel combustion processes. Novel solvents with lower energy requirements than conventional amines, using phase change systems, ionic liquids, enzyme-activation, or non-aqueous solvents, are promising approaches for post-combustion capture. Alternatively, techniques used in other commercial gas separations, including solid sorbents, membranes, and cryogenic separation, have also been developed for carbon capture through extensive materials research and process optimisation. Whilst challenging for post-combustion capture applications, these techniques may be of particular benefit to pre-combustion capture systems where much higher partial pressures of CO2 are available, and integration of the CO2 capture step and water gas shift reaction can be achieved using sorbents or membranes. In oxyfuel combustion, membranes are also an option for efficient oxygen production, but pressurised combustion systems have demonstrated the most potential for efficiency improvements, potentially in combination with novel power cycles which are better-suited to exploiting the altered combustion conditions. Finally, chemical looping combustion is a unique approach to carbon capture which can achieve dramatic energy savings through its inherent avoidance of any gas separation step, and is undergoing significant scale up. This webinar will review these developments in novel capture technologies and highlight the most promising strategies for achieving major cost reductions.
  • Retrofitting lignite plants to improve efficiency and performance Retrofitting lignite plants to improve efficiency and performance Dr Ian Reid Recorded: Mar 23 2016 44 mins
    The lignite power industry produces low cost electricity but the associated pollutant emissions are higher than from other fossil fuels. Tighter environmental legislation requires older facilities to either upgrade or face closure. Plants designed to operate until 2040 already possess the latest effluent treatment systems while older facilities seek lower cost solutions. The rising contribution of renewable energy sources obliges plants to operate more flexibly, responding to variable demands.
    This webinar reviews suitable technologies for the retrofitting of lignite PC power plants to lower emissions while raising plant performance. Drying and pre-treatment of the lignite fuel is explored as one route to improved heat rate. Adaptations based upon the existing plant technology include: combustor modification and boiler re-engineering, advanced instruments and controls, anti-fouling systems and steam turbine upgrades. Alternatives to mainstream effluent treatments are discussed, including hybrid and multi-component technologies to lower emission of NOx, SOx, particulates and mercury. Flexible plant options reviewed include energy storage, indirect firing and natural gas integrated co-generation. Latest developments on the introduction of CCUS techniques applied to lignite plants are discussed together with other means to lower plant carbon footprint.
  • New regulatory trends: effects on coal-fired power plants and coal demand New regulatory trends: effects on coal-fired power plants and coal demand Hermine Nalbandian-Sugden Recorded: Feb 24 2016 42 mins
    The webinar presents the recent regulatory trends, practices and developments in major coal producing and consuming countries, which are affecting and may influence future demand for coal and coal-fired power generation. As legislative requirements become more demanding and environmental pressures increase, especially with regard to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and climate change, investment in coal fired power-generating facilities is declining rapidly in most developed countries and to a lesser extent in some developing regions of the world, except Asia where forecasts indicate that demand will increase for some time to come. The report explores the implications of further curbs on GHG emissions from coal-fired plants in the most recent and forthcoming national regulations and international agreements. Policy, legislation and pollution reduction strategies are presented as well as future projections of coal utilisation in major coal consuming economies, including those where forecasts indicate that coal will remain a major player in power generation for the estimable future, such as China and India.
  • Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Greece Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Greece Dr Steve Mills Recorded: Jan 20 2016 40 mins
    Greece’s financial crisis continues to have a major impact on all facets of the country’s economy. In 2015, the financial crisis continued unabated. When significant economic recovery does occur, the energy sector will have a major role to play. The country has a high energy import dependency, which is expensive ‒ reportedly, about ~US$ 20 billion/year. The overall diversification of the energy mix is rather limited. Greece’s main indigenous energy resource is poor quality lignite, used to generate a significant proportion of the country’s electricity. The state-owned energy company Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC) is the largest lignite producer. More than 93% of Greece’s energy is provided by fossil fuels, (EU average is 75%). In 2014, a new government was elected and energy policy changed direction as earlier plans to privatise parts of the energy sector were curtailed. However, conditions demanded recently by EU and IMF creditors, mean that privatisation schemes may be back on the table. This is likely to encompass natural gas and electricity supply. There has been a renewed focus on the potential of the country’s lignite resources. In order to minimise the cost of imported energy and improve security of energy supply, the present government intends to increase their use, primarily for electricity generation. The webinar examines the situation prevailing in the Greek energy sector, and how this might change in the future. Existing and proposed clean coal-based activities are discussed. However, major uncertainties (in terms of scope and timescale) remain over many aspects of energy production ‒ the nature of, and rate of economic recovery will undoubtedly have major impacts.
  • Power plant CO2 heat integration Power plant CO2 heat integration Dr Colin Henderson Recorded: Dec 16 2015 28 mins
    The output and efficiency of a coal-fired power station unit fitted with CO2 capture equipment will be significantly lower than that of a similar plant without capture because some of the energy produced by burning the fuel will be needed to operate the added systems. Incorporating an aqueous amine-based CO2 scrubbing system in a simple arrangement could decrease the efficiency by as much as 30% of value. However, work at various research institutes and universities shows that the decrease in performance could be reduced by improved heat integration and other techniques. The webinar reviews these studies.
  • Coal contracts and long-term supplies Coal contracts and long-term supplies Paul Baruya Recorded: Nov 11 2015 44 mins
    Coal contracts can be typically split into two broad categories, spot contracts (single shipments) and term contracts (multiple shipments). Term contracts can span any period, but in China in 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission announced a desire for coal buyers to negotiate long-term contracts with suppliers. Security of supply of fuel and limiting exposure to shorter-term volatility in prices and fuel supplies are clearly a strategic aim of some Asian economies. Such approaches to coal procurement is used across the world to varying degrees depending on the particular circumstances of the power generators and the markets in which they operate. This webinar provides an overview of a recent publication by the IEA CCC regarding coal procurement and contractual needs, and describes some of the aspects associated with the long-term nature of some coal contracts. It provides an introduction to some of the fundamentals of coal contracts and buying to those unfamiliar with fuel procurement, as well as a review of some regions which have been active in long term coal procurement in recent years.
  • Water availability and policies for the coal power sector Water availability and policies for the coal power sector Anne Carpenter Recorded: Oct 14 2015 38 mins
    Global energy demand is rising primarily as a result of population and economic growth in the emerging economies. Meeting this growing demand places increasing stress on limited fresh water resources as electricity production uses large amounts of water. This has repercussions for other water consumers in the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors. Climate change could exacerbate the situation. This webinar examines the availability of fresh water for power generation, in particular for coal-fired power plants. It shows where the water stressed areas are in the world today and the demand for power. Global water and energy demand are discussed, and the water requirements of different power generation technologies. Some technologies that use less water, for example, dry-cooled power plants, operate at a lower efficiency. Finally, water availability and management in China and the USA, with reference to their energy production and policies are compared.
  • Application and development prospects of double-reheat coal-fired units Application and development prospects of double-reheat coal-fired units Kyle Nicol Recorded: Sep 16 2015 27 mins
    Most pulverised coal combustion (PCC) plants employ single-reheat cycles. However, double-reheat cycles can significantly improve the electrical efficiency of PCC plants. Surprisingly, no double-reheat units have been commissioned since the 1990s. However, with rising primary energy costs, more stringent emission limits and advances in thermal power engineering, double-reheat cycles are being considered to minimise the cost of electricity, reduce emissions and prolong valuable coal supplies, especially in China. This webinar reviews, analyses and assesses the application and development prospects of coal-fired double-reheat units.
  • Operating experience of low grade fuels in circulating fluidised bed combustion Operating experience of low grade fuels in circulating fluidised bed combustion Dr Ian Barnes Recorded: Aug 19 2015 29 mins
    Recent developments in process waste recycling and biomass utilisation have driven the use of these so-called ‘low value fuels’ for energy generation on a stand-alone basis, and in combination with coal. One particular technology stands out as being particularly well suited to utilising these low value fuels, circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC). The upcoming webinar sets out examples of the range of low value fuels, their reserves and properties, with particular emphasis on coal-derived materials, the issues for CFB plant in utilising these fuels and selected examples of manufacturer and operator experience with purpose built, or modified CFB plant.

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