Hi [[ session.user.profile.firstName ]]

The Expansion of iGaming in North America: What Might the Future Hold?

Since iGaming was legalized in North America several years ago, only a few jurisdictions are currently benefiting from taxable revenues resulting from online casino gaming as the novel coronavirus has brought the rest of the industry to a standstill. As such, much speculation exists about whether the current industry shutdown will result in a renewed effort to legalize online gaming in states where there hasn’t been interest or encourage jurisdictions with pending legislation to speed up the approval process.

Featuring regulatory and operational experts, this webinar explores iGaming expansion, technology, revenue potentials, regulatory concerns and what role it may play in the recovery of gaming.

Moderated by Frank Donaghue, Of Counsel with McNees Wallace & Nurick, the panelists include:

• Edward Bedrosian, Jr., Partner, Orrick
• Kevin Mullally, Vice-President of Government Relations and General Counsel, Gaming Laboratories International (GLI)
• R. Douglas Sherman, Chief Counsel, Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board
• Kent Young, Chief Executive Officer, Spin Games

This session is part of IAGA's free webinar series focusing on critical issues facing global gaming. Developed in conjunction with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) International Center for Gaming Regulation (ICGR), the UNLV International Gaming Institute (IGI), the UNLV William S. Boyd School of Law, Gaming Laboratories International (GLI) and Ernst & Young, and is made possible by Casino International.
Recorded May 7 2020 67 mins
Your place is confirmed,
we'll send you email reminders
Presented by
Frank Donaghue, Of Counsel with McNees Wallace & Nurick
Presentation preview: The Expansion of iGaming in North America:  What Might the Future Hold?

Network with like-minded attendees

  • [[ session.user.profile.displayName ]]
    Add a photo
    • [[ session.user.profile.displayName ]]
    • [[ session.user.profile.jobTitle ]]
    • [[ session.user.profile.companyName ]]
    • [[ userProfileTemplateHelper.getLocation(session.user.profile) ]]
  • [[ card.displayName ]]
    • [[ card.displayName ]]
    • [[ card.jobTitle ]]
    • [[ card.companyName ]]
    • [[ userProfileTemplateHelper.getLocation(card) ]]
  • Channel
  • Channel profile
  • Whirlpool UK training webinar: Indesit, Hotpoint, and Whirlpool appliances May 6 2021 11:00 am UTC 75 mins
    Shirley Rose, Head of Training & Field Marketing and Rosie Gardner, National Field Training Manager, Whirlpool UK
    Whirlpool UK Appliances Limited invites independent electrical retailers to an exclusive training webinar in conjunction with IER magazine. Whirlpool UK will provide an insight into its vast appliance portfolio, complete with key tips for selling Indesit, Hotpoint, and Whirlpool appliances.

    Whirlpool UK Appliances Limited offers cooking, cooling, dishwashing and laundry appliances to meet the needs of a wide range of family types, requirements and different sized homes, at various price points too.

    During the webinar, learn from the Head of Training at Whirlpool UK on how the unique features and technology of its appliances can be translated into real-life consumer benefits. Whirlpool UK will provide the tools needed to effectively demonstrate its appliances to your customers, both physically and virtually, while highlighting its clear trade-up route from the Indesit brand through to the premium appliances in the Whirlpool portfolio, in order to maximise the retailer’s margin.

    Whirlpool UK aims to ensure its retail partners are in the best position to inform, educate and enthuse every customer that enters their showroom, physically or virtually. During the webinar the training team will also provide an insight into its E-Learning platforms for each brand, which are accessible 24/7 for further product training on all appliance categories.
  • Why the cloud offers Higher Education a new beginning May 4 2021 10:00 am UTC 60 mins
    Robert Smith, Product Manager - Security: Maintel (plus further speakers)
    The student experience is rapidly becoming more akin to a commercial customer experience, internal departments are becoming siloed, and over the past year more people than ever – both employees and students alike have relied on remote network access and the technology to allow us to do this in order to stay connected.

    Maintel, together with Extreme, will be exploring how cloud technology can help to transform the higher education experience and student journey; from improved student communications, to digital signage, and even better cross-campus-department collaboration.

    As we edge towards the end of lockdown, we can develop and refine those strategies to resume our digital transformation journeys. Reviewing existing architectures and moving away from static networks toward a more agile cloud-based system, is the first step in this journey in providing you with agility, helping to overcome key challenges such as:

    • Retaining students and supporting their wellbeing
    • Commercial Flexibility: the ability to adapt with changing student requirements
    • Innovation: Utilising location-based applications to help students navigate around campus and enhance their overall learning experience

    Robert Smith, Product Manager - Security: Maintel,
    Gem James – Head of Education: Extreme Networks,
    Robert Wright - Sales Engineering Manager – Partners: Extreme Networks,
    Fraser Sutherland, Head of Education and Government: Maintel

    Join us on 4th May at 11.00am for a live panel discussion where we will discuss these topics and answer any questions you might have.
  • Bridging the Cybersecurity Gap in Education Apr 22 2021 9:30 am UTC 45 mins
    James Musk, Public Sector Sales Director at SonicWall
    More students. Dispersed classrooms. Constrained resources. Regulatory drivers. Reduced budgets. Schools are faced with more network, mobility and security challenges than ever before — all while cyber threats grow more advanced by the day. To deliver safe in-class and distance-learning experiences to a growing student population, schools need to secure wireless networks, cloud apps and endpoints while stretching budgets.

    Join this webinar to understand the top cybersecurity challenges faced by schools post pandemic and how you can address them, with insights from cybersecurity industry experts and University College School’s Head of IT, Nik Cragg.

    Joining Nik on the webinar will be;

    James Musk, Public Sector Sales Director, SonicWall
    Alex Michael, Sales Engineering Manager North EMEA, SonicWall

    Discussion Topics will include:
    • The Threat Landscape
    • Secure Remote Access
    • Cloud Transition
    • Cloud App Security
  • The solution to secondary education: The IB Middle Years Programme Recorded: Mar 25 2021 85 mins
    Dr Peter Fidczuk, the UK Development and Recognition Manager at the IB
    Learn about what benefits the International Baccalaureate’s (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP) has on students and teachers in a free webinar on 25 March presented by Dr Peter Fidczuk, UK Development and Recognition Manager at the IB; in partnership with Education Today.

    School representatives joining Peter and sharing their perspectives on implementing and teaching the MYP in a UK state school vs a private international school are:

    • Mike Gore, Head of Wilmington Academy in the UK

    The session will also cover:
    • An introduction to the MYP and how it works
    • How the programme complements the Ofsted framework
    • An introduction to the MYP eAssessment

    Developing independent learners through its inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching, the MYP, coupled with the IB’s philosophy and learner profile, can ensure that students are better prepared for further education and life beyond the school gates. The programme can be taught in several formats of two, three, four or the full five years to suit each school context.

    Register your place to find out why the MYP is a curriculum that can give your school a sense of purpose.
  • A better business in 2021: Upskill your teams and strive for success Recorded: Feb 12 2021 55 mins
    Jack Cheeseman, ERT Editor
    With Rosie Clarke, Product Training Manager, Miele GB and Paul Laville, Managing Director, T21 Group

    Consumer shopping habits have changed drastically and retailers have had to adapt. With new ways of selling comes different requirements for training. Paul and Rosie will chat to Jack Cheeseman about how retailers can stay on the ball during such challenging times to get the most out of their staff in order to capitalise on every sale they receive, in store or online.
  • Creating safer products in the home Recorded: Feb 11 2021 42 mins
    Martyn Allen, Technical Director at Electrical Safety First
    Creating safer products in the home
    With Martyn Allen, Technical Director at Electrical Safety First

    Part of ERT magazine's Turning Point Live!

    Following the previous Thursday session about kitchen installations, Martyn will be speaking about some of the safety issues electrical retailers need to be aware of to provide a great service to their customers. The kitchen is the hub of the home – and also the largest load centre with many appliances – and therefore the highest risk in terms of fires; Martyn will explain why there’s a crucial need for competent installation and certification and also product registration.
  • Selling fitted kitchens – is it for me? Recorded: Feb 11 2021 54 mins
    Jack Cheeseman, ERT Editor
    With Bill Miller, Managing Director, The Kitchen and Bathroom Buying Group (KBBG), Lyn Knight, Managing Director, Abbey Appliances, and Matthew Todd, Partner at Herbert Todd & Son.

    In order to secure an extra revenue stream, many electrical retailers are starting to offer kitchen furniture and fully-fitted kitchens wrapped around home appliances. Bill will speak about making this move and whether it’s right for your business; he will review the key things to consider and look at the main benefits of this additional in-store service. Bill will also be joined by retailers Lyn Knight and Matthew Todd, who will discuss their first-hand experiences introducing their own kitchen showrooms.
  • Retail revival: How to embrace the uncertain year ahead Recorded: Feb 10 2021 48 mins
    Jack Cheeseman, ERT Editor
    With Daniel Todaro, Managing Director, Gekko Field Marketing

    Daniel will be chatting with ERT Editor, Jack Cheeseman, about the coming year’s trends for retail and how to continue trading with social distancing measures still in place. They’ll be discussing how retailers can reach their customers in the absence of experiential events and promotions and how virtual engagement could be the answer to safer shopping during these uncertain times.
  • ERT Turning Point Live! Session 1: A snapshot of the industry Recorded: Feb 9 2021 64 mins
    Jack Cheeseman, ERT Editor
    With Nick Simon, Client Insight Director, Consumer Electronics at GfK

    Nick will provide an overview of market performance covering TV, audio, smart tech and home appliances in what has been an unforgettable year. He’ll also be looking at how retailers have been faring in recent months and what 2021 might hold for the electrical retail industry.
  • Post-Pandemic Gaming Policy: How Will It Impact Markets, Technology and Delivery Recorded: Feb 3 2021 77 mins
    Kevin P. Mullally, Vice-President of Government Relations & General Counsel for Gaming Laboratories International
    2021 portends to be a landmark year for policy changes impacting the gaming industry. States are strapped for revenue, gaming operators are looking to recover from the damage done in 2020, consumers want safety, convenience, and more ways to engage. Meanwhile, gaming equipment suppliers are eager to provide new tools and games to fulfill all those wishes. This panel of seasoned government affairs experts will discuss which states to watch in the coming months and dissect the complexity of intertwining issues and competing interests that will mark the fascinating year ahead.
    The panelists are:
    · Ed Bedrosian Jr., Partner, Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP
    · Howard Glaser, Global Head of Government Affairs and Special Initiatives, Scientific Games
    · Ayesha Molino, Senior Vice-President, Government Affairs, MGM Resorts International
    · Eric Schippers, Senior Vice President, Public Affairs & Government Relations, Penn National Gaming
  • Gambling in the Socially Distant Future Part II – is this the "New Normal"? Recorded: Nov 19 2020 74 mins
    Hosted by CJ Fisher, a Partner with Fox Rothschild
    It’s been several months since casinos around North America began reopening after government-mandated closures, and each month since has raised new challenges for the region’s land-based and online operators.

    After a brief overview of the current state of affairs in North American gaming, our esteemed panelists will begin by discussing the rapid increase internet gaming has experienced during the pandemic and its mitigating effect on lost bricks and mortar casino revenue for both regulators and operators.

    Next, they’ll consider the resurgence of sports betting and its role in helping rebuild lost casino revenues and attract and retain customers, especially for operators without online gaming options.

    Third, they’ll explore the pandemic’s ongoing impacts to land-based operations, discussing both how new safety protocols and procedures have changed the gaming floor and how the widespread operational changes that have occurred regarding capacity limits, social distancing and more might permanently reshape casinos in the future.

    Finally, they’ll discuss the lessons learned to date and explore the potential lasting impact on how things are done in a post-COVID world (if we ever get there).

    Hosted by CJ Fisher, a Partner with Fox Rothschild, the panelists include:

    • Ilkim Hincer, Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer, Hard Rock International
    • Pat Madamba, Senior Vice President and Legal Counsel, MGM Resorts International
    • David L. Rebuck, Director, New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement
    • R. Douglas Sherman, Chief Counsel, Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board
    • Ellen Whittemore, Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Wynn Resorts 
  • Sanctions Compliance Workshop: Why it Matters and Best Practices Recorded: Oct 28 2020 65 mins
    Hosted by Vasilios Chrisos, a Principal in the Financial Crimes Unit of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
    Sanctions Compliance Workshop:
    Why it Matters and Best Practices for an Effective Program

    Wednesday, October 28 – 8 a.m. PST

    Interested in learning more about US sanctions compliance and how it applies to the gaming industry?

    During this workshop-style webinar we will provide a refresher on US sanctions, including OFACs role in administering sanctions programs, applicability or sanctions, and recent actions based on geopolitical events.

    We will then share our perspective on sanctions enforcement trends, including notable actions outside of the banking space and why they matter.
    We will also cover best practices for developing a sanctions compliance program, consistent with OFACs expectations outlined in its sanctions compliance framework.

    Led by sanctions compliance experts from PwC, this webinar workshop is a must-attend for anyone who wants to understand sanctions trends and best practices for creating an effective program.

    Hosted by Vasilios Chrisos, a Principal in the Financial Crimes Unit of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, the workshop will be presented by:

    Andrea Amatuzio, Partner & Anti-Financial Crime Leader, PwC Italy
    Barbara Broussard, Partner, Sidley Austin
    Melissa B. Jameson, Director / Financial Services Advisory & Financial Crimes Unit, PwC
  • Making a Case for a Legislative Fix for the Wire Act Dilemma Recorded: Oct 7 2020 59 mins
    Moderated by Sue Schneider, Vice President of Strategy and Growth/Americas for Sports Betting Communities
    All industry eyes have been on the legal maneuverings related to the Wire Act for the past few years as the restrictions continue to keep the industry from meeting its full online potential.

    By November, the elections will be behind us and a new Congress will be seated in January 2021. Now may be the time to collectively explore whether a legislative effort is feasible and, if so, what would it look like.

    This discussion will scrutinize possible legislative efforts, investigate how best to structure legislation on the topic, probe possible paths and analyze the feasibility of its success.

    Moderated by Sue Schneider, Vice President of Strategy and Growth/Americas for Sports Betting Communities, the panelists include:

    · Ayesha Khanna Molino, Senior Vice President, Government Affairs MGM Resorts International
    · Hon. Jon C. Porter, CEO/President and Former Member of the U.S. Congress, PORTER Government & Business Solutions
    · Charles McIntyre, Executive Director, New Hampshire Lottery
    · Will Moschella, Shareholder, Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck
  • End-to-end Supply Chain Protection with Dynamic Trust Recorded: Sep 28 2020 43 mins
    Marshall Goldberg, Senior Product Marketing Manager, Lattice Semiconductor
    The security paradigm is changing, and firmware attacks are a growing and serious security concern across all end markets. TPM and MCU-based ‘static’ solutions are not sufficient for comprehensive protection needed in a constantly changing and increasingly risky supply chain environment.

    Learn how Lattice Sentry™ solutions stack delivers FPGA based parallel, real time, “dynamic” solution to protect, detect, and recover from unauthorized firmware changes, based on the NIST 800-193 platform firmware resiliency (PFR) guidelines. Additionally, learn how Lattice SupplyGuard™ service offers protection against overbuilding, cloning, counterfeiting and Trojan insertion throughout the supply chain.

    For more information, please visit www.latticesemi.com/LatticeSentry and www.latticesemi.com/LatticeSupplyGuard.

    Key Takeaways:
    • Lattice Sentry solutions stack delivers NIST 800-193 compliant, real-time, dynamic PFR software solution that reduces time-to-market from months to weeks.
    • Lattice SupplyGuard preserves trust throughout unprotected supply chains by protecting against counterfeiting, overbuilding, and trojan insertion.
    • Developers without prior FPGA experience can drag-and-drop Sentry’s validated IPs and modify the included RISC-V C reference code in the Lattice Propel design environment.

    To receive newsletters or to be kept informed of material changes to products and solutions please visit: http://ww3.latticesemi.com/Newsletter-Subscribe.html
  • Reassessing cybersecurity and data privacy risks amid an ongoing pandemic Recorded: Sep 9 2020 62 mins
    Moderated by Jason Sarfati, Director – Privacy & Data Ethics for Treliant
    We’re nearly six months into the global COVID-19 pandemic, and as the gaming industry continues to slowly rebuild after unprecedented shutdowns, many operational and organizational shifts have occurred to enable remote work, more cashless payment options and enhanced social distancing and personal safety measures.

    As the pandemic stretches on, and business continues in the “new normal”, reassessing existing and emerging data privacy and cyber security risks and challenges is more important than ever.

    This panel of data privacy and cyber security experts will first explore CCPA, GDPR and the gaming industry, analyzing first the related general compliance obligations of each set of requirements. Next, they’ll evaluate existing and new risks posed by international and third-party data transfers, especially where they intersect with a growing number of payment options and providers. Finally, they’ll discuss current and emerging cyber and data protection best practices that companies should stay on top of to ensure they are adequately protecting their company’s interests.

    Moderated by Jason Sarfati, Director – Privacy & Data Ethics for Treliant, the panelists include:
    · Greg Brower, Shareholder - Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck
    · David Hale, Deputy General Counsel, Information Protection and the Chief Privacy Officer - TD Ameritrade.
    · Scott Lashway, Partner - Privacy & Data Security, Manatt
    · Alexandru Petrescu, Senior Vice President - BIG Cyber, for BMM Testlabs
  • The Pandemic Pivot: How Gaming Regulators Have Changed Dance Steps Amid Closures Recorded: Aug 5 2020 64 mins
    Moderated by Laura McAllister Cox, Vice President of Regulatory Compliance & Legal Counsel for Rush Street Gaming
    At the beginning of 2020, the US gaming industry was poised with potential for unprecedented success with expanded gaming opportunities, further legalization and launch of sports betting and online casinos in progress or moving forward. No one could have anticipated that less than 4 months later, the gaming industry would come to a screeching halt. For the gaming regulators, who like the operators, were faced with adjusting to working from home, furloughing staff and thinking about how to reopen casino operations with the health and safety of team members and patrons of ultimate concern, other pressures from within their respective jurisdictions were added on as state tax revenue was severely impacted. In this webinar, we will hear from regulators who have attacked pandemic-related challenges and explored interesting solutions based on different ways of thinking.

    Moderated by Laura McAllister Cox, Vice President of Regulatory Compliance & Legal Counsel for Rush Street Gaming, the panelists include:

    Robert Fontaine, Deputy General Counsel for Gaming, Virginia Lottery Board
    Marcus Fruchter, Administrator, Illinois Gaming Board
    Dan Hartman, Director, Colorado Division of Gaming
    Rick Kalm, Executive Director, Michigan Gaming Control Board
  • Assessing Financial Crimes Risk Against Regulatory & Environmental Changes Recorded: Jul 22 2020 60 mins
    Moderated by Bob Boyle, a Senior Manager for Ernst & Young's Assurance Services and Forensic and Integrity Services
    As gaming and sports wagering companies reassess the impact of recent events to their operations, there are financial crimes risk implications as well. This panel will explore the trends in how patrons transact with casinos, sportsbooks and other gaming companies both physically and in the digital environment and how this can effect assessing financial crimes risk and addressing controls in place to mitigate risk. Topics to be covered include KYC measures both from a digital and brick & mortar standpoint, trends related to fraud and money laundering schemes in the current environment as well as regulatory expectations from a global perspective in maintaining a current risk assessment for your AML program.

    Moderated by Bob Boyle, a Senior Manager for Ernst & Young's Assurance Services and Forensic and Integrity Services in New York, the panelists will be:

    David Clifton, Founding Director, Clifton Davies Consultancy Limited
    Carl Fornaris, Shareholder and Co-Chair, Financial Regulatory and Compliance Practice, Greenberg Traurig
    Chris Soriano, Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer, Penn National Gaming
    Zach Zarnoch, Senior Vice President & Chief Compliance Officer, Ocean Casino Resort
  • Cannabis, Casinos, and KYC Recorded: Jun 24 2020 60 mins
    Moderated by Michael Bresnick, Chair, Financial Services Investigations and Enforcement Practice, Venable
    As the legalization of marijuana gains momentum, casinos – wherever located – must take steps to manage the potential money laundering and related risks of providing services to customers in the marijuana industry. These risks in the U.S. are real regardless of whether a casino is located in a state, Tribal territory, or foreign country that has legalized recreational or medicinal marijuana.

    This panel will bring together AML experts in private practice and casinos who have experience dealing with these and similar issues (e.g., hemp and CBD) to discuss compliance best practices, including developing specific due diligence, monitoring, and reporting procedures for customers that derive revenue from cannabis and ancillary businesses, which is becoming more difficult and important to detect than ever.

    Moderated by Michael Bresnick, Chair, Financial Services Investigations and Enforcement Practice, Venable, the panelists will be:
    · Jeffrey Hendricks, Vice President--Regulatory and Compliance, Eldorado Resorts
    · Stephen Martino, Chief Compliance Officer, MGM Resorts
    · Claiborne Porter, Partner, Squire Patton Boggs
  • Gambling in the socially distant future – what will be the “new normal”? Recorded: Jun 3 2020 63 mins
    Dan Waugh, Jon Duffy, Travis Foley, Sandra Douglass Morgan, Rui Pinto Proença, Ellen Whittem
    From Macau to London to Las Vegas, the gaming industry is slowly emerging from an unprecedented global shutdown. As each jurisdiction takes conservative steps towards reopening their gaming facilities for business, taking into consideration new mandates requiring social distancing and other health and safety precautions for both patrons and employees, we are all wondering how the industry will adapt its services to provide the gambling experience customers expect in a safe environment. Featuring a panel of industry experts from around the world, this webinar will explore the challenges, hurdles and opportunities that the industry is facing and what the short and long-term lasting impacts on gaming operations and the industry as a whole might be.

    Moderated by Dan Waugh, a Partner with Regulus Partners, the panelists will be:
    · Jon Duffy, Senior Vice President, Corporate Assurance & Regulatory Affairs, Genting UK
    · Travis Foley, Chief Operations Officer & Executive Vice President, Operations, BMM Testlabs
    · Sandra Douglass Morgan, Chairwoman, Nevada Gaming Control Board
    · Rui Pinto Proença, Managing Partner, MdME Lawyers
    · Ellen Whittemore, Executive Vice President & General Counsel, Wynn Resorts
  • Overcoming Semiconductor End-of-Life and Supply Chain Disruption Recorded: May 20 2020 57 mins
    Dan Deisz, Director of Design Technology and Ken Greenwood, Technical Sales Manager (EMEA)
    Join our industry experts, Dan Deisz, Director of Design Technology and Ken Greenwood, Technical Sales Manager (EMEA) to understand the challenges caused by supply chain disruption and end-of-life semiconductors.

    Learn how authorised distribution and licensed manufacturing solutions can help you with product-continuity, saving you the cost and time involved in re-design.


    1) A clear understanding of how an authorised supplier can provide a risk-free shortage and obsolescence sourcing route.

    2) How an authorised after-market semiconductor manufacturer can help you avoid costly re-designs, or premature product discontinuations, or extend service lives.


    Dan Deisz:
    With over 35 years of semiconductor design experience, Daniel Deisz is the Director of Design Technology at Rochester Electronics, based out of its Rockville, Maryland, office. In this role, his group performs all authorized product replications and customer-specific design solutions. Daniel is also an active member of the Anti-Counterfeiting Task Force (ACTF) for the SIA having trained more than 200 CBP/HSI agents.

    Ken Greenwood:
    Ken Greenwood is the Technical Sales Manager EMEA for Rochester Electronics. He has over 30 years of experience in the Electronics Industry working in Strategic Sourcing roles at Nortel World-wide and Matra Comms France before moving into Sales and Field Applications Management roles in the Connectors and RF/Microwave markets. In his current role, Ken provides a vital interface between Rochester’s Supply partners and the market: tracking and highlighting lead-times and supply issues; and matching market needs with Rochester’s instant stock, or our long-term manufacturing abilities.
Webinars from Datateam Business Media
Datateam is a modern and dynamic communications business with a comprehensive product portfolio of leading publications, websites and events across many business-to-business and healthcare sectors.

The Brighttalk Datateam webinar channel holds content from a wide variety of brands and business sectors.

Embed in website or blog

Successfully added emails: 0
Remove all
  • Title: The Expansion of iGaming in North America: What Might the Future Hold?
  • Live at: May 7 2020 3:00 pm
  • Presented by: Frank Donaghue, Of Counsel with McNees Wallace & Nurick
  • From:
Your email has been sent.
or close